In the event where there may be insufficient resources to fund a full blown formalised formative research process, there are various informal qualitative mechanisms that the team can draw on. The focus here would be on smart partnerships with local stakeholders that have a proven track record of working with the target group that will be enrolled in the study. These relationships will fast-track the research team’s understanding of their target groups. Additionally community-based focus groups coupled with key informant interviews can also give a better insight into the community norms and practices. Where these are done in a systematised and well-documented fashion (guided by a formative research plan) they form important and useful data points for ongoing or future research in that site. Not all formative research must be resource intensive – while noting that many aspects are still better supported by continuous investment over time.