Yes, we have engaged community stakeholders in conducting surveys, one on one interviews and focus groups. These formative research activities help us to better understand community members views on PrEP, HIV prevention, and participation in trials. However, the weaknesses I see in our formative research efforts are 1. we mostly worked with community groups that worked closely with the site research facilities already, so our information source is a bit narrow. 2. we haven’t fully utilized these research findings to help us further our engagement activities and to inform next steps due to  uncertainties and delays in the trial itself.